Open Internet Standards Open Standards Everywhere Strengthening the Internet

Speed Matters: How Businesses Can Improve User Experience Using Open Standards

A recent report – Milliseconds make Millions – commissioned by Google and published by Deloitte, has shown that mobile website speed has a direct impact on user experience. Reducing latency and decreasing load times by just 0.1 second can positively affect conversion rates potentially leading to an increase in net earnings.

Over a four-week period, Deloitte’s research team analyzed mobile web data from 37 retail, travel, luxury, and lead generation brands throughout Europe and the U.S. Results showed that by decreasing load time by 0.1s, the average conversion rate grew by 8% for retail sites and by 10% for travel sites. The team also observed an increase in engagement, page views, and the amount of money spent by website visitors when sites loaded faster.

Multiple studies have consistently shown that faster page load speeds will result in better conversion rates. Akamai’s 2017 Online Retail Performance Report, for example, showed that a 100-millisecond delay in website load time can reduce conversion rates by 7% and that over half (53%) of mobile site visitors will leave a page that takes longer than three seconds to load.

HTTP/2 and IPv6: Faster and More Available

There’s good news: making some relatively simple changes to your webserver configuration could help to improve your website’s user experience as well as making it more available.

Implementing HTTP/2, for example, can speed up webserver performance by enabling browsers to download multiple files simultaneously over the same connection. This means that all of the files needed to display a webpage effectively are downloaded faster, enabling users to access content sooner.

And, as more and more people come online it’s likely that they will be connecting via IPv6 rather than over IPv4: over 90% of Reliance Jio’s 387.5 million 4G subscribers connect to the Internet via IPv6. So, by ensuring that your website is available over IPv6, the number of users that could potentially visit your site is greatly increased. IPv6 also optimizes the route that Internet traffic takes, which can also lead to improved website performance.

Improve Your Website

The Internet Society’s Open Standards Everywhere (OSE) project promotes the use of open Internet standards that can help to improve website speed, security, and availability. We’re working to equip everyone with the knowledge to make simple changes to some of the most widely used webservers (including NGNIX and Apache) by providing simple how-to guides to enabling HTTP/2 and IPv6 as well as other standards, including TLS 1.3 and DNSSEC.

First, test your website to see how well it supports open Internet standards. If you’re at 100%, congratulations: your website users are already getting a more enhanced experience! If you don’t quite get a perfect score, we might be able to help.

If you have access to the administrative interface of your webserver:
Take a look at our crowdsourced step-by-step documentation to see how you can make improvements. Once you’ve implemented the latest open standards, test your website again and see whether your score has improved. You can also consider contributing your experience to our documentation to help others make changes.

If you use a Content Delivery Network (CDN):
Businesses, large and small, often use CDN services to optimize their websites. Most CDNs enable HTTP/2 and IPv6 by default even if these protocols are not enabled on the original webserver, so your website could already be offering an improved user experience. Check with your CDN if you are unsure and ask them to enable these protocols if they have not done so already.

If you are using a hosting company and cannot access your webserver to make changes:
There is unfortunately not much that you can do to make changes to your webserver. You could switch to a provider that does offer its customers the option to enable HTTP/2 and IPv6 and other open Internet standards. Or you could contact your provider and ask them if they are planning on implementing these standards for their customers in the near future.

We’re in the process of developing short tutorials and training courses to further support people who want to make improvements. We’ll launch these over the coming months.

Making the Case

The conclusions are clear: as the number of consumers connecting to the Internet increases, those businesses that can deliver a faster online user experience for visitors will benefit from a higher conversion rate than those that can’t.

But it’s not just online retailers and e-commerce that should be paying attention: any call to action on your website can be considered a conversion. Requesting signatures for an online petition, asking people to support community networks, or recruiting new members for an Internet Society Chapter could all potentially be positively impacted by increased website speeds.

So what are you waiting for? Find out how to take action now.

Image by Sabri Tuzcu via Unsplash

Events Open Internet Standards Shaping the Internet's Future Technology

Hackathon at Africa Internet Summit 2019: Network Programmability, Network Time, IPv6, IPWAVE, and Measurement

The Internet Society and AFRINIC collaborated to organize the 3rd Hackathon@AIS in Kampala, Uganda, which took place alongside the 2019 Africa Internet Summit. The event attracted more than one hundred participants who took part in five different tracks at the event. The event has grown from three tracks and 39 participants in 2017 and three tracks with 75 participants in 2018, to five tracks with 100 participants this year. Cisco DevNet has been helping organize the event since the first edition, and this year, they sponsored t-shirts for the Hackathon.

The goals of the Hackathon@AIS and other open standards promotion activities in the African region are to identify, encourage, and expose engineers from Africa to open Internet Standards development, so that they can contribute to the work at organizations such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

The event ran for two days, organized as follows:

  • Day 1, June 19th, Morning
    • Opening session covering the goals of the meeting and the overall structure
    • Registration formalities of participants – using information gathered during the registration process earlier in the year, participants were added into corresponding tracks with each track having its own meeting room and facilitators
    • Room and lab setup – connectivity was provided via the Africa Internet Summit connectivity provider (SEACOM)
  • Day 1, June 19th, Afternoon
    • Hackathon activities in each track
  • Day 2, June 20th, Morning
    • Hackathon activities in each track
  • Day 2, June 20th, Afternoon
    • Presentation of results from each track (available on the event website)
    • Closing ceremony with awarding of t-shirts.

The Tracks
This year, there were five tracks:

Network Programmability
In this track, participants were introduced to network programmability concepts and components, including IETF standards such as YANG, NETCONF, and RESTCONF. They then applied what they learned using tools such as pyang, ncclient, and Postman, programming languages such as Python, and sandboxes from Cisco DevNet that provided access to network devices.

Network Time
In this track, participants were taken through Network Time and the work going on at the IETF on how to secure NTP. It started with an introduction on plain NTP, and its basic packet format. The participants learned about wireshark and compiling from source. Later NTS (Secure Network Time) was explained and how it is finally heading to becoming an RFC. This part of the track was challenging due to the mathematics involved. Participants got to work with Chrony and presented their findings at the closing ceremony.

In this track, participants were taken through IPv6 and given a breakdown of the IETF IPv6 working groups (6MAN and v6OPS) and the role of the Working Group chairs at the IETF. Participants were challenged with enabling IPv6 in several IPv4 only open source tools, some of which were completed successfully.

The facilitators proposed that a follow up be made to keep the flame burning, by helping the participants get more familiar with current drafts that are being discussed in the various IPv6 related working groups.

This track covered testing an implementation of a draft being discussed at the IETF under the IPWAVE working group. The author of the track, Professor Nabil Benamar, lead the group in testing some implementations proposed in the draft.

This track covered DNS over TLS (DoT) and DNS over HTTPS (DoH) setups and measuring the performance of caching resolvers against locally-setup DoT and DoH servers against publicly available DNS resolvers. The purpose was to find out the performance differences and the requirements for running a local DoT or DoH server. Some of the results indicated that of the publicly available DNS resolvers, Quad9 ( returned responses the quickest in Africa, but local resolvers (installed in the local lab) were still quicker. Do read a more conclusive report from Willem Toorop from NLnet Labs, who was one of the lead facilitators at the Measurement Track.

Presentations and Materials
Presentations and other content from the event can be found at

Feedback from participants has been positive with almost all participants indicating that the event got them interested in Open Internet Standards and the work going on at the IETF. On what could be improved, the most common feedback from participants has been to increase the number of days for the event which currently stands at 2 days. Participants said more days would allow for more in-depth coverage of document lifecycles (from drafts to RFC) and more time to get into the technical content covered in each track.

Moderator feedback was similar with more time available noted as being key to covering more content in depth.

Participants from some of the tracks such as the IPWAVE went on to update the IPWAVE Working Group at the IETF with the results of their findings from the event. Several participants have also indicated interest in organizing similar activities in their localities or organizing remote viewing hubs for meetings such as the IETF.

The organizers would like to thank the expert facilitators who lead the tracks, the AFNOG tech team for providing the required connectivity, and AFNOG and AFRINIC for sharing the venue during the 2019 Africa Internet Summit.

TheHackathon@AIS 2019 Facilitators were:

Network Programmability

  • Charles Eckel
  • Isabel Odida
  • Michelle Opiyo


  • Loganaden Velvindron
  • Christer Weinigel
  • Jeremie Daniel

Measurement (DNS)

  • Willem Toorop
  • Jasper van Hertog


  • Nabil Benamar
  • Manhal Mohammed


  • Fred Baker
  • Stephen Honlue
  • Brice Abba

Organizing Team

  • Marsema Tariku (ISOC)
  • Stephen Honlue (AFRINIC)
  • Charles Eckel (Cisco)
  • Nabil Benamar (Morocco – School of Technology Meknes, University of Moulay Ismail)
  • Willem Toorop (NLNET Labs)
  • Fred Baker
  • Kevin G. Chege (ISOC)

Report Compiled by:

  • Stephen Honlue
  • Charles Eckel
  • Nabil Benamar
  • Willem Toorop
  • Kevin G. Chege
  • Loganaden Velvindron

Read testimonials from the Hackathon trainers!

Events Open Internet Standards Technology

2019 Hackathon@AIS: Testimonials from the Trainers

What is Hackathon@AIS?

The Internet, with its endless supply of knowledge and information, has become a strategic element in nearly all economic endeavors in Africa. To build tactical awareness among primary stakeholders as well as resiliency and robustness into Internet-enabled grids, the Internet Society and AFRINIC have organized the third Hackathon@AIS event, which is taking place in Kampala, Uganda, from 19-20 June 2019.

Network engineers, software developers, and computer science students from across Africa are gearing up for another round of collaborative computer programming aimed at introducing participants to existing and evolving Internet standards development that can help further their careers through shared skillsets.

The first Hackathon@AIS was held in 2017 in Nairobi and attracted 39 participants from 12 countries. The second event, held in 2018 in Dakar, attracted 75 participants from 15 countries. Both events consisted of three different tracks led by expert facilitators from across the globe. This year, the event consists of five tracks spanning different fields, and again we’ve called on expert facilitators from around the world to share their expertise and guidance.

The Hackathon is a breeding ground for talent that can change the world through innovation and create productivity and efficiency in business. Participants will meet new people with different talents, forming “super teams” – with skilled mentors to guide participants down the right path of on-demand service delivery.

Why Are We Doing It?

The goals of the Hackathon@AIS are to expose engineers to the development process of open Internet standards and to identify strong individuals who can contribute to open Internet standards in the region. Historically, participation from the African region has been low and this event aims to  encourage engineers to contribute to open Internet standards. This year, approximately 400 participants applied and more than 100 are attending the event. Please visit the event web page:

Testimonials from the Trainers

Fred Baker has been working in data communications since 1978, including 22 years at Cisco and 30 years in the IETF. He now co-chairs IPv6 Operations in the IETF and the Root Server System Advisory Committee in ICANN. “This is my first Hackathon as a trainer,” Fred said. “I’m learning as I prepare, and hope to be a benefit to those I work with.”

Loganaden Velvindron, currently working at AFRINIC and the Regional Internet Registry, said, “During the Hackathon@AIS event, I will be working on network time security with Jeremie Daniel, a brilliant student from the University of Mauritius and member on, as well as Christer Weinigel. So far I have attended two Hackathon@AIS events as a trainer. During the first hackathon, students were able to implement part of a spec in FreeBSD, DragonflyBSD, and NetBSD. In the last Hackathon, students were able to implement privacy in a Python NTP implementation, and a single line was added to that draft in the NTP working group to make the draft better. We hope that participants will prepare before they come so that we can move faster during the training sessions.”

Charles Eckel, a developer advocate with a passion for open source and standards, and recognized champion of open source, standards, and interoperability, runs DevNet’s Open Source Dev Center at Cisco, which focuses on Cisco’s major open source contributions, use, and community engagements. He also runs Code Exchange, which helps developers discover, learn, build, and collaborate on curated GitHub projects to jumpstart work with Cisco platforms, products, APIs, and SDKs. Charles introduced open source hackathons into IETF, revolutionizing the way IETF operates and uniting open source software with standards to maximize the pace and relevance of both. The first Hackathon@AIS was modeled after the IETF hackathon as a way to increase IETF awareness and involvement in Africa. At the 2018 Hackathon@AIS, Charles led a successful project focused on network programmability, and for 2019, he is leading a new and improved version of this project. According to Charles, “the Hackathon is a great way for developers and network engineers to learn new skills while actively contributing to the deployment and improvement of IETF standards.”

Willem Toorop, a developer/researcher at the NLnet Labs, works on open standards and open source software for core Internet protocols.  Willem is especially interested in delivering first class security and privacy (with DNSSEC and DNS-over-TLS) to end-users at the edges of the Internet.  “Since the whole world is now using, and increasingly also dependent upon the Internet, every area in the whole world MUST be involved in the development of open standards that is taking place in the IETF,” Willem said. “Topics currently being discussed at the IETF, like consolidation of core infrastructure (like DNS), have far reaching performance and privacy consequences that might be and mean different things in different areas of the world. However, this might not be immediately apparent as the dominance of the central cloud services on the Internet overshadow the underlying infrastructure that enables them. The best way to get intimately acquainted and involved with the open network of networks that is the Internet, is to get your hands dirty and actively participate in one of the topics which are now at the heart of the debate at the IETF.”

“The Hackathons I have supervised have led to a few interesting projects,” added Willem. “Like DNSSEC name and shame, A DNSSEC secured OTR-key lookup to the Python-based Gajim XMPP client. This was also later presented at ICANN50 in London, an emoji-based identification of DNSSEC key.” Willem further noted that the Hackathons in which he has participated were all used to make implementations of drafts he was working on (many for DNS-over-TLS, authenticating upstream with DANE, etc.). The RIPE DNS measurement has also led to the DNS Thought project.

Nabil Benamar, Associate Professor of Computer Networks at Moulay Ismail University, researches topics such as IPv6, vehicular networks, DTNs, IoT, and IDNs. Author of several journal papers and IETF Internet drafts, Nabil is an IPv6 expert ( certified) and IPv6 trainer with many international organizations (RIPE/MENOG, AFRINIC, and Agence universitaire de la Francophonie), as well as a reviewer for Computer Communications (Elsevier), Adhoc Networks (Elsevier), Future Generation Computer Systems (Elsevier), JKSUCS (Elsevier), International Journal of Wireless Information Networks (Springer), AJSE (Springer), and IEEE Access. Nabil is a TPC member of different IEEE flagship conferences (Globecom, ICC, PIMRC, WCNC, etc.), and a member of the organizing committee for WCNC’2019.

Nabil became an expert in Internet Governance after completing the Internet Society’s Next Generation Leaders e-learning program, acting as an Internet Society Ambassador for the 2012 and 2013 Internet Governance Forums, a Google panelist at the first Arab-IGF, and an Internet Society Fellow (IETF 89, 92, 95, 99, and 103), and a Fellow to ICANN 50 and 54.

“The Hackathon is a must for the African community to increase its participation in IETF working groups, and thus participate in shaping the Internet by co-authoring drafts, RFCs, and producing standards,” Nabil said. “Such activities will also lead to hosting an IETF meeting in Africa, which has never been done so far! I think that we need to encourage such an initiative and try to organize at least two hackathons per year.” Nabil further added that the Hackathon held for the African community is an enabler of the possible production of future IETF documents co-authored by African participants. According to Nabil, it is a good idea to lead different tracks in the same hackathon. Each track demands different and specific skills: programming languages, Linux Kernel, Networking, etc.

Events Open Internet Standards Shaping the Internet's Future Technology

Save the Date: Hackathon@AIS

The third Hackathon@AIS will take place in Kampala, Uganda on the 19th and 20th of June 2019. The Hackathon@AIS is an event aimed at exposing engineers from the African region to Internet Standards development and usage. This will be the third event in the series following successful events held in Nairobi (2017) and Dakar (2018), each alongside the Africa Internet Summit (AIS).

See what was covered in 2017 and 2018 Hackathons@AIS here:
2017 Hackathon@AIS
2018 Hackathon@AIS

The event is targeted at network/system engineers, software developers, and/or computer science students to introduce them to existing and evolving Internet standards development that can help further their careers.

Applications for the event will open in April 2019.

Fellowships will be awarded to strong applicants where possible.

Applications will close on 12 May 2019.

For more information please contact Kevin Chege:

Read testimonials from the 2018 Hackathon@AIS fellows.

IETF Open Internet Standards Technology

Concluding the IETF Rough Guide, Long Live the IETF Blog

For many years we have produced a series of blog posts as a Rough Guide to each upcoming IETF meeting usually in the week prior to the meeting. The Rough Guides were intended to provide a snapshot of IETF activity of interest to the Internet Society because of programmatic activity that we were engaged in. They were also an opportunity to highlight the activities sponsored directly by the Internet Society that were happening adjacent to the upcoming IETF meeting.

Rough Guides were intended to help guide a non-specialist but technically minded audience to the hot topics and debates of interest at each upcoming IETF meeting with pointers to the agenda and remote participation possibilties. Originally intended to help spur meeting attendance by those interested in the key topics, they became a way to highlight important discussions taking place and ways to get involved in person or remotely.

As we are now less than a week away from the IETF 104 meeting in Prague it seemed like the right time to share an update regarding our plans for writing about IETF activity. We have decided to discontinue producing the Rough Guides. Instead, we will be helping to supply relevant, high-quality content for the IETF Blog.

News about upcoming meetings, post-meeting wrap-ups and articles about work on specific technical topics taking place at IETF are now regular features of the IETF blog. It is providing an excellent resource for the wider audience interested in the work of the IETF and ways to get involved. Recent posts on the IETF Blog have included a summary of potential new work being discussed at IETF 104; an update on ACME  a technology that is automating steps towards increased encryption on the Internet; and an introduction to MUD  a new protocol which addresses the challenge of managing an increasing number of Things on our networks.

We will continue to write about the IETF and the technical work taking place in the many working groups through the Internet Society’s regular channels. We may also help to curate content from the IETF community for publication on the IETF blog, as needed.

Deploy360 IETF Open Internet Standards

The Internet Society’s Hot Topics at IETF 103

The 103rd meeting of the IETF starts tomorrow in Bangkok which is the first time that an IETF meeting has been held in the city.

The Internet Society’s Internet Technology Team is as always highlighting the latest IPv6, DNSSEC, Securing BGP, TLS, and IoT related developments, and we’ll also be covering DNS Privacy and NTP Security from now on. This is discussed in detail in our Rough Guide to IETF 103, but we’ll also be bringing you daily previews of what’s happening each day as the week progresses.

Below are the sessions that we’ll be covering in the coming week. Note this post was written in advance so please check the official IETF 103 agenda for any updates, room changes, or final details.

Monday, 5 November 2018

Tuesday, 6 November 2018

Wednesday, 7 November 2018

Thursday, 8 November 2018

The IETF Hackathon will be held on both Saturday, 3 November 2018 (08.00-22.00 UTC+7) and Sunday, 4 November 2018 (08.30-16.00 UTC+7) in the Sala Thai Ballroom. The Hackathon provides an opportunity for developers and implementers to discuss ideas, solutions and code to develop practical implementations of IETF standards.

The IETF Code Sprint will also be held on Saturday, 3 November (08.30-22.00 UTC+7) in Apartment 1. The Code Sprint brings together volunteers from the IETF Community to work on code for the IETF Datatracker, mailing lists, and other tools used by the IETF community.

You can also read the Internet Society’s latest Rough Guide to IETF 103. In particular, see:

If you can’t get to Bangkok next week, you can attend remotely!  Just visit the IETF 103 remote participation page or check out for more options.

Beyond the Net Community Projects Development Growing the Internet Human Rights Improving Technical Security Open Internet Standards Privacy Technology

From Idea to Action: Beyond the Net Selects 15 Amazing Chapter Projects!

The Beyond the Net Funding Programme is pleased to announce the results of our 2018 grant cycle. A total of 49 applications were received, and after a thorough reviewing process, 15 amazing projects were selected.

These projects are at the core of our mission, and will use the Internet to develop Community Networks in underserved areas, to empower women through ICT, as well as bringing awareness on Internet policies around the world.

This is the result of months of effort from our Chapter Community. Many discussions, numerous clarifications and proposals, updates, and revisions from the Beyond the Net Selection Committee. We are proud of you all.

Please join us in celebrating the following projects!

Developing community networks in the Northern region of Brazil – Brazil Chapter

Supporting and promoting the development of the Internet to enrich people’s lives, the project aim is to contribute to the growth and improvement of community networks policies and practices in Brazilian rural areas, in order to strengthen those who are marginalized. Instituto Nupef will work to develop a new network in the state of Maranhão as well as a developing a communications plan for the Babassu coconut breakers organizations and movements. Objectives include expanding the reach of community networks with broadband Internet, monitoring of legislative and regulatory issues, and consequently documenting the work by disseminating the experiences by way of videos, photos, and texts.

Migrant Community Networks – Mexico Chapter

Aiming to understand how a particular community of migrants lives and communicates beyond societal spaces. We plan to analyze the re-appropriation of space and communication, digital connectivity and social discourse, through observation, data collection in forms of digital communication and social interaction, and by means of audiovisual recording of refugees’ everyday lives. This project doubles as an exploratory and social intervention that will help open a dialogue on connectivity among the migrant community. Objectives include implementation of a community network with trans-border communication in the Tijuana area and the creation of a digital archive of migrant communities’ experiences.

Creation of an Internet Traffic Exchange Point (IXP) – Dominican Republic Chapter

The project aims to create an IXP in a neutral, reliable, safe,  and efficient place, achieving the interconnection and exchange of traffic between those involved. Objectives are to raise awareness among local stakeholders regarding both the need and the advantages of an IXP, reducing costs of international interconnection and maintaining local internet traffic at national borders. Improvement of stability and resilience of the Internet service can optimize response times to security incidents and technical problems and the creation of a “community” of operators will give continuity to the project, promoting its expansion and operation according the best local and international practices.

Improving Livelihood of Women Through ICT Empowerment – Malaysia Chapter

The project target is to train 400 women to use the MyHelper crowdsourcing application to encourage earning extra income. This three-pronged project provides opportunities for women to develop essential entrepreneurial skills through ICT, empowering them to start their own businesses and use the Internet to improve their livelihood. Training modules will be developed in English as well as local languages such as Malay and Tagalog during a 3-month period, benefitting a large pool of women and ensuring the sustainability of the project. The creation and improvement of profiles will increase crowdsource worker visibility and the application of jobs.

Creating Networks – Youth Special Interest Group (SIG)

Firstly, the project aims to map organizations “of young people” in Latin America to identify how many work with issues related to the Internet and ICT, and leveraging its importance.  A website will be created displaying this information, followed by a capacity building phase and introduction, plus chartered topics and sessions related to individual work modules. Objectives will include, after analysis, face-to-face capacity-building sessions on Internet Governance to encourage proactiveness and general connection. Survey results will be published as well as a general guide on the development and experience of the project and the materials used, for use by the general public and in both the Spanish and Portuguese language.

Multistakeholder Internet Governance Training – Guinea Chapter

For the first time, a training project aims to set up a multilateral, inclusive, multistakeholder and discussion platform related to general Internet issues in Guinea and particularly on Internet Governance. Discussions will contribute to the development of the Internet at local, regional, and International level. Specific objectives are the training of approximately 70 people from different areas of life, including government, business, and civil society as well as engineers and standards development professionals. A committee will be created to ensure that Guinea’s concerned are addressed as well as addressing the need to increase Internet Governance capacity for Internet users as well as ensuring that stakeholders are well prepared for improved contributions/interactions.

Zaria Community Network and Culture Hub – Nigeria Chapter

The project seeks to use the Internet to improve the quality of education for the formally enrolled, as well as those outside the formal schooling system, as a resource for basic education, vocational development, and self-employment opportunities. A campaign will be run to enlighten communities on the opportunities available. Goals will include the implementation of free-to-use ISM band to reach research and educational institutions, community WiFi hotspots and solar-powered back-up solutions, culture hub web portals, a shared learning management system and a network monitoring infrastructure. A community engagement session for 500 teachers, students, and individuals will be conducted as well as continuous enlightenment campaigns and surveys to estimate effectiveness of strategies.

Women in Cyber Security – Kazakhstan Chapter

The implementation of the project will increase potential, and ensure that young women have the necessary skills and knowledge to understand, participate in, and benefit fully from cybersecurity and their applications as well as creating future role models thus increasing the percentage of women in the field. The aim of the training is to bridge the digital gender divide in cybersecurity in Kazakhstan by conducting 8 training sessions of approximately 50 students over a period of two years. Experienced female trainers will use up-to-date cybersecurity educational programs with the objective of increasing to up to 50% the number of women in this field over the next decade.

LibreRouter Phase 2 – Community Networks Special Interest Group (SIG)

The LibreRouter is the first multi-radio mesh router that is designed for community networks. It enables simple mesh deployment with little to no manual configuration and provides easy to follow documentation on technical aspects but also for planning and coordination. This Phase 2 project intends to cover an important missing piece: organized remote support for LibreRouter based networks. Main objectives are the design and implementation of a support system dashboard with a support request and follow-up mechanism, as well as extending LibreRouzer software tools to improve on problems identified. Other aims include the completion of documentation materials, hardware improvements and exploration of designs with the objective of lowering costs.

Spring of Knowledge – Kyrgyzstan Chapter

Schools in Kyrgyzstan have a great need for teachers with over 2500 teaching positions unfilled every year. The project aims are to improve the quality of education in Kyrgyzstan and increase the number of personnel to allow teachers to spend more time with students as well as providing additional materials to improve their own training. Objectives are to expand opportunities for studies in pilot locations, stimulating independence and responsibility and reducing the divide between school children in developed countries and those living in Kyrgyzstan in both rural and urban areas. Our aim is to increase the digital literacy of schoolchildren in Kyrgyzstan in pilot locations within 1 academic year.

Better Internet for Everyone in Lebanon – Lebanon Chapter

In Lebanon, the daily challenge is the peak time when the Internet user’s consumption outgrows the total bandwidth capacity and the quality of service is degraded for shared bandwidth offerings constituting more than 90% of the residential Internet market. Our project is a new business model for shared bandwidth offerings, consisting of a different pricing model based on the time of use as well as a subscriber panel to monitor service quality and accountability. The proof of concept will be tested first with up to 10 local community WISPs and later with other developing countries and ranging from 50 to 1000 subscribers. Comparisons will be made of aggregated graphs effects, consumption behavior, old vs new ISP revenues, and finally community polls to evaluate the new model and prepare to scale once proven.

DigiGen– Serbia Belgrade Chapter

The project aim is to explore how ICT technologies and the Internet can play a role in decreasing the existing gender digital gap and how to take into consideration gender awareness in developing new and evolving technologies. Our objective is to determine how new technologies can meet societal challenges across gender lines to promote and accelerate access to quality education, entrepreneurship, and innovation. Research topics include understanding the factors for acceptance of new technologies across genders and using the learning acquired for maximum impact and developing a leadership platform in rural areas. Our aim is also to leverage free access to the Internet through “Internet Light” as well as creating digital literacy recommendations in documented form for further program implementation in the region.

Contributing towards better ICT Policy Environment in Nepal – Nepal Chapter

The project goal is to build ICT and Internet related laws and policies in Nepal compatible with both international standards and best practices and ensuring the fundamental human rights of individuals. It will, after analysis, organize consultations with stakeholders and prepare policy recommendations aiming to ensure an open and sustainable Internet and ICT for the benefit of all. Objectives will incorporate the review of draft bills from international standards perspectives, inform major stakeholders of loopholes by sharing policy recommendations, and publishing a policy brief for the enhancement of knowledge. Our aim is to ensure the best adoption of Internet-related laws that will uphold Internet rights.

Empowering Village Development Committee Leaders – Botswana Chapter

In Botswana, Village Development Committees (VDCs), are “the main institutions charged with the responsibility for community development activities.” This project will provide training to VDCs committee leaders on use of the Internet as well as introducing the opportunities on offer. The project aims to target VDCs leaders in 2 remote regions with the aim of empowering these village leaders by showcasing to the best of its ability the benefits of using the Internet. By donating a laptop for use by the VDCs of the 4 most rural areas, we can empower these leaders to access information and facilitate communication. No local program has yet targeted these leaders and yet they are influential in community development. The full objective is to target 40 leaders in 4 regions to become Internet champions in their respective areas and contribute to village development issues in a productive way. 

KASBUY: Promoting Moroccan Women’s Participation in the Digital Economy – Morocco Chapter

Our proposition is the project KASBUY, a web platform to help cooperatives overcome marketing difficulties in advertising their products and reaching out to clients. KASBUY is an e-commerce platform and will allow any registered cooperative to have its own online space from which it will sell its products and manage its business and inventory management activities. The project will encourage the best use of the Internet for sustainable development of local communities and includes opportunities from which women and their families will benefit.  With the promotion and preservation of Moroccan artisanal heritage and the use of a universal and accessible web showroom, we aim to improve the maximum employment for women and families, particularly in rural areas.

Do you have a great idea to make your community better via the Internet? Find out if you’re eligible for a Beyond the Net grant!

Image: Nyirarukobwa Primary School in the Eastern Provice of Rwanda, which was connected to the Internet via a Beyond the Net project, ©Nyani Quarmyne

Deploy360 Events IETF IPv6 Open Internet Standards Securing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

IETF 102, Day 5: Au revoir Montréal

There’s just the couple of sessions to highlight on the last day of IETF 102 before we wrap up for the week.

V6OPS continues at 09.30 EDT/UTC-4 where it left off on Thursday afternoon. On the agenda are drafts relating to Multi-Addressing Considerations for IPv6 Prefix Delegation which considers prefix delegation considerations for both classic routing and various multi-addressing use cases; whilst IP over Ethernet (IPoE) Session Health Checking describes a mechanism for IP over Ethernet clients to achieve connectivity validation using PPP-style keepalives such as BFD Echo, or ARP and Neighbor Discovery functions.

The remaining draft proposes a method for Discovering Provisioning Domain Names and Data, which describes a way for hosts accessing the Internet via multiple interfaces and with possible multiple IPv6 prefixes, to identify themselves using Fully Qualified Domains as Provisioning Domain identifiers.

NOTE: If you are unable to attend IETF 102 in person, there are multiple ways to participate remotely.

The final session starting 11.50 EDT/UTC-4 includes IDR. This has been working on (amongst other things) the issue of route leaks, and is trying to pull together different conflicting approaches towards mitigation of these in favour of a more complementary approach. This work includes two drafts on Methods for Detection and Mitigation of BGP Route Leaks, and on Design Discussion of Route Leaks Solution Methods.

With that, IETF 102 draws to a close and we say au revoir to Montréal. Many thanks for reading along this week… please do read our other IETF 102-related posts … and we’ll see you at IETF 103 on 3-9 November 2018 which for the first time is being held in Bangkok, Thailand!

Relevant Working Groups

Deploy360 Domain Name System (DNS) Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) Events IETF Internet of Things (IoT) IPv6 Open Internet Standards Transport Layer Security (TLS)

IETF 102, Day 4: DNS, IoT & TLS

This week is IETF 102 in Montreal, Canada, and we’re bringing you daily blog posts highlighting the topics of interest to us in the ISOC Internet Technology Team. Today we’re focusing on DNS, IoT and TLS issues.

LPWAN is the first event of the day starting at 09.30 EDT/UTC-4. There will be a discussion relating to the Working Group Last Call on the Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) framework, which provides both header compression and fragmentation functionalities; and on how to advance the LPWAN Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) for CoAP specification. Two other drafts are being presented for adoption by the Working Group relating to SCHC specifications (see and

NOTE: If you are unable to attend IETF 102 in person, there are multiple ways to participate remotely.

The first session of V6OPS commences at 13.30 EDT/UTC-4, and will continue on Friday morning. Today’s agenda items include a presentation on World IPv6 Trends from APNIC Labs, followed by discussion on a new draft NAT64/464XLAT Deployment Guidelines in Operator and Enterprise Networks which describes considerations with respect to applications or devices using literal IPv4 addresses or non-IPv6 compliant APIs, as well as IPv4-only hosts on an IPv6-only network. Two existing drafts will also be discussed – Requirements for IPv6 Routers that defines a set of recommendations for routers, switches, and middleboxes deployed in IPv6 networks; and Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge Routers to Support IPv4 Connectivity as-a-Service which extends RFC 7084 in order to allow the provisioning of IPv6 transition services for the support of IPv4 as a Service (IPv4aaS).

During the second part of the afternoon starting at 15.50 EDT/UTC-4, there’s a choice of two meetings.

DNS Resolver Identification and Use (DRIU) is a BoF to discuss how to identify DNS stub resolvers that support privacy (i.e. DNS-over-TLS and DNS-over-HTTPS) using DHCP and DHCPv6. There’s a couple of drafts under discussion on DHCPv6 Options for private DNS Discovery, and DOH digests that provides a mechanism for selecting a DNS-over-HTTPS (DOH) server.

Alternatively, you can choose T2TRG that will consider the report from the Workshop on IoT Semantic/Hypermedia Interoperability (WISHI), along with an update on the that enables webmasters to embed structured data on their web pages for use by search engines and other applications. Following this will be a discussion on the next steps for IoT security, including a draft that reviews the state-of-the-art and the challenges for IoT security. A further draft offers guidance for designing Internet of Things (IoT) systems that follow the REST architectural style.

Then for the evening session starting at 18.10 EDT/UTC-4, there’s again the choice of two meetings:

TLS continues on from Monday afternoon, and will consider three drafts during this session. Certificate-based Authentication with External PSK specifies a TLS 1.3 extension that allows a server to authenticate with a combination of a certificate and an external pre-shared key (PSK); Ticket Requests describes a mechanism by which clients may request tickets as needed during a connection, in order to address a limitation on the number of parallel connection a client may initiate; whilst Encrypted Server Name Indication (ESNI) defines a simpler mechanism to conceal the domain name a client is trying to connect to.

DNSOP also continues from where it left off on Wednesday morning. A couple of interesting drafts that may come up in this session include a DNS proxy use case to tunnel DNS query and response using DNS over HTTPs (DOH) protocol; and a proposed protocol and DNS Resource Record to compute, sign, represent, and use a message digest to verify the contents of a DNS zone.

For more background, please read the Rough Guide to IETF 102 from Olaf, Dan, Andrei, Steve, Karen and myself.

Relevant Working Groups

Deploy360 Domain Name System (DNS) Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) Events IETF Internet of Things (IoT) IPv6 Open Internet Standards


This week is IETF 102 in Montreal, Canada, and we’re bringing you daily blog posts highlighting the topics of interest to us in the ISOC Internet Technology Team. And today’s topics include DNS Security & Privacy, along with more IPv6 and IoT.

The first DNSOP session will start at 09.30 EDT/UTC-4, and will continue on Thursday evening. Topics of interest include a draft on Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage Guidance for DNSSEC, which updates current algorithm implementation requirements and usage guidance for DNSSEC (obsoleting RFC 6944). Another draft on Multi Provider DNSSEC models describes how to deploy DNSSEC in environments where multiple DNS providers are in use, whilst Delegation_Only DNSKEY flag introduces a new flag for DNSSEC keys that can address a potential attack.

NOTE: If you are unable to attend IETF 102 in person, there are multiple ways to participate remotely.

Alternatively, the relatively new working group SUIT will also be meeting at the same time. Vulnerabilities in Internet of Things (IoT) devices have raised the need for secure firmware updates that are also suitable for a constrained environments, and this group aims to develop an interoperable update mechanism. There are three drafts up for discussion, including the description of the firmware update architecture, a specification for the firmware update metadata model or manifest, as well a specification for the firmware manifest format. The next steps will also be discussed.

In the first afternoon session starting at 13.30 EDT/UTC-4, there’s a choice of DPRIVE or 6TiSCH.

DPRIVE will kick off with an analysis of RIPE Atlas probe data relating to DNS Privacy, before discussing some recommendations for DNS Privacy Service Operators. There’s also some new work on Oblivious DNS that introduces an additional layer of obfuscation between clients and their queries, and there will be some discussion about how to add privacy to the communication between recursive resolvers and authoritative DNS servers. The latter is beyond the scope of the current Working Group charter and so the group will consider whether to ask to expand their mandate.

6TiSCH has a busy agenda with the 6top protocol that enables distributed scheduling being targeted for an IETF Last Call, whilst the IESG feedback on the security functionality will be discussed. Two other drafts are aiming for Working Group adoption including a description of a scheduling function that defines the behavior of a node when joining a network and a mechanism for carrying important information in infrequent network broadcasts. Another new draft defines a secure joining mechanism for enrolling devices into an 802.15.4 TSG network using 6TiSCH signalling methods.

In the second afternoon session starting at 15.20 EDT/UTC-4, Homenet will continue to discuss the Homenet profile of the Babel routing protocol. There are also two updated drafts on the agenda, relating to third party provisioning of naming services for home networks and defining DHCPv6 options so that naming services can be outsourced.

Rounding off the day is the IETF Plenary starting at 17.10 EDT/UTC-4.

For more background, please read the Rough Guide to IETF 102 from Olaf, Dan, Andrei, Steve, Karen and myself.

Relevant Working Groups

Community Networks Deploy360 Encryption Events IETF Internet of Things (IoT) IPv6 Open Internet Standards

IETF 102, Day 2: Trust in the IETF

This week is IETF 102 in Montreal, Canada, and we’re bringing you daily blog posts highlighting the topics of interest to us in the ISOC Internet Technology Team. And today’s topics include IPv6, IoT and Trust technologies.

6MAN commences at 09.30 EDT/UTC-4, and has six new drafts up for discussion covering IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Extensions for Prefix Delegation, IPv6 VPNs, ICMPv6, OAM in Segment Routing Networks with an IPv6 Data plane, allowing low or zero valid lifetimes to be accepted in Router Advertisement Prefix Information Options where it’s known that there can only be one router on the link; as well as introducing a new IPv6 ‘unrecognised’ option for ICMPv6 that conveys whether an underlying network can transmit IPv6 packets.

There are also three working group sponsored drafts, adopted from the last meeting. Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6 describes an extension that causes nodes to generate global scope addresses from interface identifiers that change over time; IPv6 Segment Routing Header specifies how a node can steer a packet through a controlled set of instructions (segments) by prepending an SR header to the packet; whilst IPv6 Router Advertisement IPv6-Only Flag is an update to RFC 5175 that indicates to hosts that a link is IPv6-only.

NOTE: If you are unable to attend IETF 102 in person, there are multiple ways to participate remotely.

There’s a choice of two meetings starting first thing at 09.30 EDT/UTC-4:

DMM is working on solutions for IP networks so that traffic between mobile devices and and correspondent nodes can take an optimal route. And there are several IPv6-related drafts including a couple related to Segment Routing (SRv6) for the Mobile User Plane (see and, as well as on Proxy Mobile IPv6 extensions for Distributed Mobility Management. There’s also three drafts on 5G implementations which might be interesting.

Over in ROLL, they’ll be discussing an applicability statement for battery-powered remote metering devices and two others relating to routing headers and multicast parameters. There’s also a new draft on route discovery for symmetric and asymmetric Point-to-Point traffic flows.

Straight after lunch at 13.30-15.30 EDT/UTC-4 is 6LO , that’s preparing the IPv6 Backbone Router draft for a Working Group Last Call. There will also be an update regarding IESG review of the proposed revisions of RFCs 6550 and 6775 where 6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery nodes in an RPL domain do not participate in the routing protocol, and a review of security considerations for Address Protected Neighbor Discovery that protects the owner of an address against address theft and impersonation inside a low-power and lossy network. Other drafts up for discussion include Design Considerations for Low-Power Networks to provide guidelines for improving interoperability, IPv6 over Power-Line Communication Networks, and on enabling IPv6 mesh networks over Bluetooth.

During the evening session commencing at 17.20 EDT/UCT-4, there’s another choice to be made between ACME and CFRG.

ACME is primarily focusing on agreeing the Automatic Certificate Management Environment protocol that is used to automate the process of verification, certificate issuance and revocation, and will be looking for consensus on a Working Group Last Call. Also up for discussion though, is the ACME TLS ALPN extension that allows for domain control validation using TLS, and Support for Short-Term, Automatically-Renewed (STAR) Certificates.

CFRG has five drafts on the agenda including randomness improvements for security protocols which is critical to the robustness of TLS and other security related cryptography; and Verifiable Random Functions (VRFs) which offer provide privacy against offline enumeration on data stored in a hash-based
data structure. Somewhat related is a draft that specifies a number of algorithms that may be used to hash arbitrary strings to Elliptic Curves, and another specifying a hash function with arbitrary output length.

Finally, although it’s not normally one of the Rough Guide topics, we’d like to highlight that the Global Access to the Internet for All (GAIA) Research Group will be holding a meeting at 15.50 EDT/UTC-4. This is chaired by our colleague Jane Coffin and aims to raise awareness and discuss the challenges and opportunities of enabling global Internet access. In particular to document and share deployment experiences and research results with the wider community, and to analyse how the costs of providing Internet access can be reduced for areas with low penetration.

For more background, please read the Rough Guide to IETF 102 from Olaf, Dan, Andrei, Steve, Karen and myself.

Relevant Working Groups

Deploy360 Events IETF Improving Technical Security Internet of Things (IoT) IPv6 Open Internet Standards Securing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Transport Layer Security (TLS)

IETF 102, Day 1: IETF arrive à Montréal

Tomorrow sees kickoff of the Working Groups sessions at IETF 102 in Montreal, Canada, we’re bringing you daily blog posts highlighting the topics of interest to us in the ISOC Internet Technology Team. Monday is an important day, with meetings of the TLS, 6MAN and SIDROPS Working Groups, along with two other IoT related groups.

6MAN commences at 09.30 EDT/UTC-4, and has six new drafts up for discussion covering IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Extensions for Prefix Delegation, IPv6 VPNs, ICMPv6, OAM in Segment Routing Networks with an IPv6 Data plane, allowing low or zero valid lifetimes to be accepted in Router Advertisement Prefix Information Options where it’s known that there can only be one router on the link; as well as introducing a new IPv6 ‘unrecognised’ option for ICMPv6 that conveys whether an underlying network can transmit IPv6 packets.

There are also three working group sponsored drafts, adopted from the last meeting. Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6 describes an extension that causes nodes to generate global scope addresses from interface identifiers that change over time; IPv6 Segment Routing Header specifies how a node can steer a packet through a controlled set of instructions (segments) by prepending an SR header to the packet; whilst IPv6 Router Advertisement IPv6-Only Flag is an update to RFC 5175 that indicates to hosts that a link is IPv6-only.

NOTE: If you are unable to attend IETF 102 in person, there are multiple ways to participate remotely.

ACE is running parallel with 6MAN, and will be discussing various drafts related to using DTLSOAuth, and Object Security in RESTful Environments and Proof of Possession for Web Tokens. There is also an important draft on Enrollment over Secure Transport for provisioning certificates over HTTPS.

Then in the afternoon starting at 13.30 EDT/UTC-4, you’ll need to choose between three working groups. The first TLS session of the week (the meeting continues on Thursday afternoon) has several important items related to the deployment of TLS 1.3 and there’s a proposal to formally deprecate TLS versions 1.0 and 1.1.

There’s two other drafts updating DTLS to version 1.3 (see and, and another describing a TLS extension to allow TLS clients to perform DANE authentication of a TLS server without needing to perform additional DNS record lookups. The remaining couple of drafts on the agenda relate to a mechanism that allows for exportable proof of ownership of a certificate that can be transmitted out of band and verified by another party, and on delegating credentials on TLS to allow server operators to
create their own credential delegations without breaking compatibility with clients that do not support this specification.

Over in SIDROPS, there’s three recommendations up for discussion that network operators avoid using the maxLength attribute when issuing Route Origin Authorizations under RPKI; how to improve Origin Validation within a trusted environment; and definition of a RPKI signed object that can be used by Trust Anchors to allow Relying Parties to migrate to new keys. There’s also a couple of profiles being defined for verifying that a Customer AS holder has authorised a Provider AS to be its upstream provider, and for AS Provider Authorization objects to verify the AS_PATH attribute of routes advertised by BGP. Finally, there will be a discussion on validation deployment planning.

There’s just the two drafts being discussed during the IPWAVE meeting, but important ones. The first is an update of the specification for transmitting IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11 Networks in Vehicular communications; the other defines the use cases for IP-based vehicular networks.

For more background, please read the Rough Guide to IETF 102 from Olaf, Dan, Andrei, Steve, Karen and myself.

Relevant Working Groups